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This section considers the past, present and future scenarios.

Models and their efficacy

Summarise models and their utility for examining multiple stressors and change.


Climate change and ocean acidification




Other human uses

Future trajectories

Shifting habitats and productivity

Functional groups and vulnerabilities

Ecosystem structure and function


Food web vulnerabilities

Spatial climate risks and refugia

Ecosystem services

  1. Fisheries production
  2. Biodiversity
  3. Carbon sequestration